In order to achieve sustainable peace and to prevent radicalism, violence and conflict, we require a society's resilience through the role of women.
Resilience applies to a community’s self-sufficiency in terms of their knowledge, systems, institutions and structures to survive in the face of conflict and other social change. This can be measured over long period of time through social transformation interventions at individual, family, structural and cultural levels.
There are a few foundations that can measure endurance; strengthening of inclusive thinking, tolerant and gender-equal-attitudes toward religious leaders / people, the cooperation between various groups in society, and the availability of good systems and mechanisms for conflict resolution and violence.
Under 'Women led community resilience'
Women's School for Peace
There are already several types of women schools in Indonesia. However not many have incorporated a peace perspective in their learning curriculum. AMAN Indonesia believes that the wealth of women's experience and intelligence in domestic space is the basic capital for women to be involved in the peace-building process.
Unfortunately, there is not much room for women to develop that capital in the community. Therefore, AMAN Indonesia seeks to facilitate a wider space for women to express and develop their perspectives and experiences through the Women's School for Peace.
Women School for Peace is an independent grassroots women community, initiated and organized by AMAN Indonesia and supported by Local Government and local stakeholders.
Since 2007 to 2018, there are 1,296 women have joined WPS in DKI Jakarta, West Java, East Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, and Central Sulawesi.
Purpose of Women's School of Peace:
1. To educate and empower women at the grassroots level.
2. Building a critical and social awareness in women and society
3. Making women leaders in a peace building movement.
4. Making women subjects and agents of development.
Women's School for Peace: Pondok Bambu
On 22 August 2007, 21 women from RW 01 Pondok Bambu agreed to establish a women's organization as a place to vent, share knowledge, and skills they called the Women's School for Peace. They became aware that the women of Pondok Bambu must hone their potential and creativity to take an active role in peace building in their village.
Every two weeks they learn various things, such as how to handle floods, religious knowledge, and think about how to get rid of a loan shark. They also learn handicrafts and how to manage cooperatives.
In its development, regular classes have begun to focus on studying modules made by AMAN Indonesia. Activities facilitated by local facilitators who are representatives of WPS members who have followed the training of trainers and were accompanied by AMAN Indonesia
Women School for Peace: Gunung Bunder-Bogor
The Gunung Bunder Women's School for Peace started when two women that had joined in the Loji Bogor Area's Women School for Peace, had the desire to erect the same class in Gunung Bunder area. On 25 Desember 2015, the school in Gunung Bunder was established.
Initially, classes were held every two weeks with learning materials based on modules made by AMAN Indonesia. Classes are facilitated by local facilitators, who are representatives of Gunung Bunder members, who have gone through training to become facilitators.
Since 2018, Gunung Bunder members have agreed to activate the regular class once a week. There are currently 18 active members at this school. In addition to discussing the module, members also develop their potential by creating handicrafts and cooking, which is then made into Gunung Bunder souvenirs.
Women School for Peace: Puger Kreatif (SPPK) Puger, Jember
The Sekolah Perempuan Puger Kreatif (SPPK), or the Creative Women of Puger’s School in Puger, Jember was founded in 2016 because of the conflict the women faced. Puger sits in the north of East Java, with the majority of people working as fishermen. In the beginning of 2013, conflict broke between different groups which led to the death of a group member. This conflict grabbed national attention, especially since it was attributed to a Sunni – Syiah clash.
The school brought together women from the Puger Kulon Village, Puger Wetan and Dusun Jadukan, Mojosari. SPPK shows that the voices of women will be heard when expressed. After a long journey together with SPPK, the women’s voices are now reckoned. Active in the activities of the Kelompok Sadar Wisata (POKDARWIS) or the Tourism Awareness Group to develop Puger into a costal tourist area.
In the past, these women would never dream of being important, now they are seen as representatives of a women group that is needed in Musrebang, not only to the village, but also to the district. Now they plan on gather women to stop juvenile delinquency in the area. They believe that the energy that the youth have should be used for positive activities.
Women School for Peace: Bintang 9 Sampang
Every women has the right to be educated and contribute to building peace. And this is true for a group of women in the Dharma Camplong village in Camplong, Sampang.The Camplong sub-district sits around 30km from the location of where the Sunni-Syiah conflict broke. The escalation of this conflict influenced the way of thinking of the surrounding society.
The Women’s School for Peace first assembled in December 2017. The women of this school were fortunate to receive the Program Keluarga Harapan (the Conditional Cash Transfer Programme). Most of the women do not have higher education but they are enthusiastic to gain new knowledge.
Members come together to build awareness of their existence as women that face many challenges. Discussing problems of poverty, low awareness on education, health and access to decision making. They are also aware of the need to increase women's capacity to address violence against women and children. One of their greatest desires is to get to know policymakers to talk about women and children around them.
Women School for Peace: Srikandi Handayani, Pengkok, Patuk, Gunung Kidul
On June 26, 2015, twenty-five women of the Pengkok Village gathered at Ms. Dewi Sidiq's house. They were invited personally to attend an explanation of the Women's School program facilitated. This is a follow-up to the conversation with Ms. Dewi, who was involved in AMAN Indonesia's workshop on the making of 10 women's political agendas, held in Jakarta. She expressed her desire to have a Women’s School for Peace program in Gunung Kidul because it felt very important for female community there, especially in Pengkok village.
At the beginning of the meeting, there was a visible confusion and curiosity amongst the women about what exactly "Women’s School for Peace" was. Although it has been explained that the School is a forum for women to improve their skills and knowledge on women's rights, gender equality, reproductive health, and peace building. But they still felt that they needed to know more about it. One participant in the meeting and is currently the head of the School, revealed this. Finally, it was agreed to hold another meeting to discuss further.
The choice to have a Women’s School in the village of Pengkok was the last option after failing in Wonosari and Playen sub-districts. In the Wonosari sub-district, AMAN Indonesia had conducted an assessment and begun communication, which even led to a meeting. However, because of other parties who did not want to be invited to cooperate, we cancelled the program there.
AMAN Indonesia also wanted to organize a Women's School program in the area of Playen. This is because Playen has a high rate of violence against women, according to data. However, due to many requirements and because there was already an established Village School program from other institutions, AMAN Indonesia decided to not continue communication there.
Currently Srikandi Handayani Women’s School has entered the community network of women in Gunung Kidul and has already been acknowledged at the sub-district level, and even had a dialogue in the district. They also have begun to feel that they have an increase of knowledge related to women's issues.
Women School for Peace: Central Sulawesi
The Women's School for Peace in Poso and Tentena stood against the backdrop of interreligious conflicts that occurred in 2000. Some areas are directly affected by the conflict between the major religions. The majority of the population are farmers and fishermen. The first Women’s School, established in 2009 and 2010, is situated in an area where the population is largely affected by inter-religious conflicts. The Women’s School in Malei has a conflict reconciliation mission, done through strengthening women's role in peace building. In addition, the Pamona Women’s School has a harmonious relationship between migrants and indigenous peoples, as the region is one of the areas where refugees settled.
In 2011 the Women's School in Malei lage changed its name to the Women’s School of Sintuwu Raya. The journey of the first two Women's Schools was not easy as many challenges were felt because they were still traumatize deeply, and the school does not only involve one religious group, but the two religious groups involved in the conflict. Building trust was very hard for members. Over time, however, participants began to benefit from the existence of this school. In subsequent years the Women’s school in the Poso and Tentena region sprang up from 2014 to 2017, eventually reaching to 14 schools in the village.