Women Peace and Security
Women, peace and security
In 2000, United Nation Security Council (UNSC) officially acknowledged the creation of resolution 1325, after reviewing recommendations from the growing studies on the importance of women’s involvement in peace process could bring long lasting stability and peaceful community. The resolution is addressing the unique effects of conflict to women and girls differently, and the recognition to the role of women and girls in conflict reconciliation and resolution, including the need to relief and recovery which must be gender sensitive. The detail about resolution 1325 can be explained under four pillars; Prevention,Protection, Participation and Relief-Rehabilitaiton. Here is the explaination;
Efforts to strengthen capacity of leadership of women to involve in conflict-prevention related intervention in the community, including prevention to radicalization. Prevention pillar also includes strengthening Early Warning System (EWS) to conflict, where women’s roles are centered, enhancing collaborative works among multi-stakeholders to sustain peace and mainstreaming gender and peace into school curriculum.
Efforts to advocate improve capacity of law enforcer (police, judge, and lawyer) to have perspective on gender based violence (GBV). We are also advocating to the rights of victim of GBV in conflict and extremism context to get access to justice, including long-term supports for social and economic rehabilitation. Other important area of protection is ensuring national law reflecting to gender justice and peace oriented. Therefore, effective law enforcement on hate-speech, bullying and persecution against minority groups is crucial.
Promote and facilitate women’s involvement in all decision making process related to peace and security, including increase number of women in senior position related to security and women peacekeepers. Participation pillar also covers community-led initiatives to promote peace, tolerance and non violence, including to enhance the role of religious leaders, especially women ulama in promoting conflict prevention and prevent radicalization.
Relief and Rehabilitation
Conflict effects to women, men and children differently, therefore having their voices to be hearth will help to reshape their practical and strategic needs effectively. Our works is also to ensure gender mainstreaming in area of rehabilitation, reintegration and demobilization in post conflict situation, including to increase collaboration between government and non government agencies to support development in post conflict affected area.
History of National Action Plan (NAP) 1325 / RAN P3AKS
Is RAN P3AKS (National Action Plan on Protection and Empowerment of Women and Children in Social Conflict) considered NAP 1325? Yes. It is. In 2007, when the draft of NAP 1325 was innitiating by group of civil societies, later on engaged Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection (MoWE), was meant to apply Resolution 1325 about Women, Peace and Security into national policy. After five years of negotiation with some ministry agencies in the area of “status of compulsary of state members to implement Resolution 1325” and “women in security”, we did not have much progress.
When Law No. 7 Year 2012 on Handling Social Conflict (UU PKS) passed in 2012 by goverment, it was provided a better opportunity to build a new concensus on the urgency of having national policy on women, peace and security. At that time, negotiation among a drafter team that consisted of representative of Civil Societies and Goverment Agencies, were much more effective after come “contextualization” process in which resolution 1325 was used to guide susbtance of RAN P3AKS where elements of prevention, protection, participation and relief rehabilitation manisfetating into the program, while UU PKS used as a major umbrella legal instrument for RAN P3AKS. In short, RAN P3AKS is a final result of the best negotiation for Indonesia, using UU PKS as national policy to refer and Resolution 1325 as subtantial guidance to describe Agenda of Women, Peace and Security.
Localization of NAP
Decentralization of Governance System of Indonesia required all national policy to be translated into local policy. Soon RAN P3AKS launched in 2014, Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection (MoWE) did roadshow to 15 priority provinces to do socialization about RAN P3AKS and facilitated provincial goverment to develop Local Action Plan Women Peace and Security (RAD P3AKS). The fifteen provinces are Aceh, Lampung, Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Central Sulawesi, North Sulwesi, East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, NTB, NTT, Maluku and North Makulu, Papua.
The process of localization can be seen at video grafis below:
Currently, RAD P3AKS from provinces of Aceh, Lampung, CEntral Sulawesi, and Maluku are available and ready to implement at provincial level.
Profiling of Women Peace Builders Indonesia
Suraiya Kamaruzzaman (Aceh)
Suraiya Kamaruzzaman is a women's rights activists and founder of Flower Aceh, an NGO that concentrates on empowering and strengthening women named Flower Aceh on 23 September 1989.
Shadiah Marhaban (Aceh)
Shadia Marhaban served as a coordinator at SIRA, an organization dedicated to galvanizing support for a popular referendum on Acehnese independence. She also worked to build international support for Acehnese self-determination through her work with the peace movement “Moratorium on Dialogue”.
Adriana Venny (Jakarta)
Adriana Venny has experience as a consultant with the UNDP, UN Women, UNFPA, as a Director of Advisory Council on Women Participative Institution, Coordinator at the GBU Coalition and as the Executive Director of the Jurnal Perempuan Foundation.
Irene Gayatri (Jakarta)
Ruby Kholifah (Jakarta)
Ruby Kholifah has been active in the women’s movement in Indonesia for years as a trainer, resource person and researcher on women’s human rights, religion and gender justice, and sexual and reproductive health. Currently, she is the country representative of AMAN Indonesia, which is concerned with women in relation to peace building and inter-faith cooperation.
Dewi Amir (Central Sulawesi)
Dewi Rana Amir is a trained legal advisor from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. She chairs the legal aid organization, YBH Bantaya, in Palu, the capital of Central Sulawesi. YBH Bantaya promotes the right of indigenous communities to manage and benefit from their land and natural resources and encourages local communities to critically examine the governments forestry and agricultural policies.
Hilda Rolobesi (Maluku)
Baihajar Tualeka (Maluku)
Baihajar Tualeka is the founder of the Lembaga Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Anak (abbreviated as LAPPAN) which aims to facilitate education and discussion between Muslims and Christians in Ambon.
Electronita Duan (North Maluku)
Electronita Duan is one of the founders of the Politeknik Pembangunan Halmahera, a higher educational institution for people whose studies have been stalled because of conflict, and are so unable resume their education
Suster Brigita (NTT)
Sister M. Brigitta Renyaan is one of the leaders of the Maluku community who strongly promotes the reconciliation between religious communities since the outbreak of the Maluku conflict in 1999, especially in Ambon. She (along with other leaders) from the Protestant and Muslim communities formed a group called Gerakan Perempuan Peduli (The Concerned Women Movement Group). Sister Brigitta is the coordinator from the Catholic division.